Vijaya Phyto Farms Pvt.Ltd.
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Grape

Grape (Vitis vinifera) belongs to the family  Vitaceae is a perennial deciduous woody vine The fruits grow in bunches and are small round or oval berries that feature semi-translucent flesh encased by a smooth skin. The commercially grown grape cultivars can be grouped into 4 categories namely Coloured seeded , coloured seedless, white seeded and white seedless. The fruits are eaten fresh as  table grapes or dried fruit (raisins and sultanas) or used to make wine, squash and juices.

Soil and climate: Hot dry climate is ideal for growing grapes. Well drained soils with good water holding capacity in a pH range of 6.5 - 7.5 is ideally suited .There must be low water table with EC less than 1.0. Soil depth should be at least 1 m.

Varieties: Thompson Seedless ,Muscat (Gulabi), Bangalore Blue, Taj-e-Ganesh,  Flame Crimson seedless, Sharad seedless, Red globe, Pachadraksha, Anab-e-Shahi, etc.

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Planting material: Rooted cuttings or grafted plants. Vijaya Phyto Farms Pvt.ltd. produces  excellent quality grafted grape planting material. The rootstock used is Dogridge which imparts resistance to nematode and helps overcome salinity.

Planting:  Planting is done in trenches of 1 m width and 0.75 m depth dug at a distance of 3 m apart or in pits of 1m x 1m x 1m.

Spacing: 3 x 2 m for Muscat, 4 x 3 m for other varieties.( The spacing varies with region as well as system of training)

Irrigation: Grapes need light and frequent irrigation. They need less water during fruit bud formation and more water during berry growth. Irrigation to be reduced during ripening to improve quality and hasten ripening.

Training:  The different systems of training are head, kniffin, telephone, V, expanded Y and gable system and pandal (bower).

Pruning: In general four bud level of pruning for Muscat, Pachadraksha, Bangalore Blue, Anabe-Shahi and Arka hybrids and two bud level for Thompson Seedless may be adopted.  Weak and immature canes should be pruned to one or two buds to induce vegetative growth.

Pruning Season:
December to January(winter) in North India 
April (back pruning or foundation pruning)  and October ( fruit pruning or forward pruning) in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
December – January (harvesting summer crop in April – May) and May-June (harvesting
Monsoon crop in August-September) in Tamilnadu

Manures and fertilizers: The manures should be applied twice after pruning. Apply half the dose of potash immediately after pruning and the other half after 60 days of pruning.

Pests : The pests affecting the grape vine are Nematodes, Flea beetles, Thrips, Mealy bugs and Stem girdler.

Diseases: Grapevine is affected by the following diseases namely Powdery mildew, .
Anthracnose and downy mildew.

Harvesting and Yield: Grapes are to be harvested when they are fully ripe as they do not ripen after harvesting.
Seedless varieties: 20 t/ha/year
Muscat : 30 t/ha/year
Pachadraksha : 40 t/ha/year
Anab-e-Shahi and Bangalore Blue : 40 to 50 t/ha/year



List of references:
Handbook of Horticulture , Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pusa, New Delhi, 2009, pages 109-399
Crop Production Techniques of Horticultural Crops, Directorate of Horticulture and Plantation Crops Chepauk, Chennai - 600 005 & Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore - 641 003, 2004, pages 1-31
K. Manibhusan Rao, (1990) Textbook of Horticulture, Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi 110002 pages 248-258
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